Estimation formulas for the specific absorption rate in humans exposed to base-station antennas

Marie Christine Gosselin*, Günter Vermeeren, Sven Kühn, Valpré Kellerman, Stefan Benkler, Tero M I Uusitupa, Wout Joseph, Azeddine Gati, Joe Wiart, Frans J C Meyer, Luc Martens, Toshio Nojima, Takashi Hikage, Quirino Balzano, Andreas Christ, Niels Kuster

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

    33 Citations (Scopus)


    The demonstration of compliance with guidelines for human exposure to base-station antennas can be a time consuming process or often results in overly conservative estimates. To alleviate this burden and reduce the overestimation, approximation formulas for the whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) and the peak spatial SAR of human bodies using readily available basic antenna parameters have been developed and validated in this study. The formulas can be used for adults standing in the radiating near field of base-station antennas operating between 300MHz and 5GHz, at distances larger than 200mm. It is shown that the 95th-percentile absorption for the human population can be well approximated by the absorption mechanism and statistical data of weight, height, and body-mass index of the human population. The validation was performed numerically using three anatomical human models (Duke, Ella, and Thelonious) exposed to 12 generic base-station antennas in the frequency range 300MHz to 5GHz at six distances between 10mm and 3m. From the 432 evaluated configurations, the estimation formulas for adult models are proven to be conservative in predicting the SAR exposure values of the two adults, but as expected not of the child.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number5872021
    Pages (from-to)909-922
    Number of pages14
    JournalIEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - Nov 2011
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


    • Anatomical models
    • base-station antennas
    • electromagnetic fields
    • occupational exposure
    • safety limits
    • specific absorption rate (SAR)


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