Environmental sustainability in agriculture: Identification of bottlenecks

Jussi Lankoski*, Leena Lankoski

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Increasing the environmental sustainability of the agriculture sector is an important policy goal for many governments. This study employs Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA) to identify potential necessary conditions (bottlenecks) and to assess their required levels for achieving strong and weak environmental sustainability outcomes in agriculture. Based on data from selected OECD countries, the results show that there are several necessary conditions, including both structural and policy conditions, for achieving high environmental sustainability. More specifically, the results show that low production intensity and low livestock density and cropland share are necessary conditions for high environmental sustainability. These, in turn, are affected by past and present production-coupled agricultural support policies (especially market price support and output payments) that constrain the achievement of high environmental sustainability. It is therefore important to reduce the levels of these support measures to enable higher environmental sustainability in agriculture.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107656
JournalEcological Economics
Early online date8 Nov 2022
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Agricultural policy
  • Greenhouse gas emissions
  • Necessary condition analysis
  • Nutrient surplus
  • Strong sustainability
  • Weak sustainability


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