Hypogonadism is an endocrine disorder characterized by inadequate serum testosterone production by the Leydig cells of the testis. It is triggered by alterations in the hypothalamic–pituitary– gonadal axis. Erectile dysfunction (ED) is another common disorder in men that involves an alteration in erectile response–organic, relational, or psychological. The incidence of hypogonadism and ED is common in men aged over 40 years. Hypogonadism (including late-onset hypogonadism) and ED may be linked to several environmental factors-induced oxidative stresses. The factors mainly include exposure to pesticides, radiation, air pollution, heavy metals and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals. These environmental risk factors may induce oxidative stress and lead to hormonal dysfunctions. To better understand the subject, the study used many keywords, including “hy-pogonadism”, “late-onset hypogonadism”, “testosterone”, “erectile dysfunction”, “reactive oxygen species”, “oxidative stress”, and “environmental pollution” in major online databases, such as SCO-PUS and PUBMED to extract relevant scientific information. Based on these parameters, this review summarizes a comprehensive insight into the important environmental issues that may have a direct or indirect association with hypogonadism and ED in men. The study concludes that environmental factors-induced oxidative stress may cause infertility in men. The hypothesis and outcomes were reviewed critically, and the mechanistic approaches are applied through oxidant-sensitive path-ways. This study also provides reccomendations on future therapeutic interventions and protective measures against such adverse environmental factors-induced hypogonadism and ED.
- Air pollution
- Endocrine-disrupting chemicals
- Erectile dysfunction
- Heavy metals