Environmental contamination at Finnish shooting ranges-the scope of the problem and management options

Jaana Sorvari*, Riina Antikainen, Outi Pyy

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

72 Citations (Scopus)


In Finland, shooting ranges are among the most common activities causing soil contamination. According to our study based on questionnaires and previous regional surveys, the total number of Finnish outdoor shooting ranges is between 2000 and 2500. Most of the ranges are small and only ca. 5% exceed 20 ha. Almost a third of the ranges can cause a groundwater pollution risk, while only few cause an immediate health risk. In the first instance, 50-60 shooting ranges identified as being high-risk areas should be investigated in detail. At present, the risk management options at Finnish shooting ranges are very limited. Hence, soil excavation combined with disposal is the most common remediation technique. Some of the remediation methods used in other countries have been proven unsuitable in Finnish conditions. Therefore, new, feasible, cost-effective and economical remediation technologies are needed. To exclude future contamination, a total ban of lead shot would be the most effective way.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21-31
Number of pages11
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jul 2006
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Contamination
  • Lead
  • Risk management
  • Shooting range
  • Survey

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