Energy efficiency optimization of electric powertrain of underground load-haul-dump mining loader by means of dynamic programming

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review


Research units


The emissions of heavy-duty underground mobile machinery put the health of human workers at risk and increase the overall maintenance cost of the underground mine due to extra ventilation expenses. Besides, tightening emission standards for non-road vehicles are pushing towards greener solutions, hence fully electric powertrains are becoming a viable alternative to conventional solutions. A fully electric powertrain provides mechanical power with no local emissions and it is characterized by a superior energy efficiency compared to conventional diesel powered machines. This paper analyzes a case study of a real-size load-haul-dump mining loader equipped with a fully electric powertrain. An optimal speed profile is generated for the mining loader by means of Bellman’s dynamic programming algorithm in MatLab environment. The optimal speed profile demonstrated a 9.1% decrease in energy consumption comparing to a profile composed of constant speed and constant acceleration. As the traction motors are operated in the higher efficiency areas, they generate less heat prolonging the lifetime of the powertrain components


Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationConference on Fluid Power, SICFP 2019
EditorsKalevi Huhtala
Publication statusPublished - 22 May 2019
MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
EventScandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power - Tampere-talo, Tampere, Finland
Duration: 22 May 201924 May 2019
Conference number: 16


ConferenceScandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power
Abbreviated titleSICFP
Internet address

    Research areas

  • dynamic programming, load-haul-dump mining loader, electric powertrain, energy efficiency

ID: 40399657