Energy-aware VM consolidation in cloud data centers using utilization prediction model

Fahimeh Farahnakian, Tapio Pahikkala, Pasi Liljeberg, Juha Plosila, Nguyen Trung Hieu, Hannu Tenhunen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


Virtual Machine (VM) consolidation provides a promising approach to save energy and improve resource utilization in data centers. Many heuristic algorithms have been proposed to tackle the VM consolidation as a vector bin-packing problem. However, the existing algorithms have focused mostly on the number of active Physical Machines (PMs) minimization according to their current resource requirements and neglected the future resource demands. Therefore, they generate unnecessary VM migrations and increase the rate of Service Level Agreement (SLA) violations in data centers. To address this problem, we propose a VM consolidation approach that takes into account both the current and future utilization of resources. Our approach uses a regression-based model to approximate the future CPU and memory utilization of VMs and PMs. We investigate the effectiveness of virtual and physical resource utilization prediction in VM consolidation performance using Google cluster and PlanetLab real workload traces. The experimental results show, our approach provides substantial improvement over other heuristic and meta-heuristic algorithms in reducing the energy consumption, the number of VM migrations and the number of SLA violations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7593250
Pages (from-to)524-536
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • energy-efficiency
  • green computing
  • k-nearest neighbor regression
  • linear regression
  • SLA
  • VM consolidation

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