Empirical Evaluation of a 28 GHz Antenna Array on a 5G Mobile Phone Using a Body Phantom

Lauri Vähä-Savo, Christian Cziezerski, Mikko Heino, Katsuyuki Haneda, Clemens Icheln, Ali Hazmi, Ruiyuan Tian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
21 Downloads (Pure)


Implementation of an antenna array on a 5G mobile phone chassis is crucial in ensuring the radio link quality especially at millimeter-waves. However, we generally lack the ability to design antennas under practical operational conditions involving body effects of a mobile user in a repeatable manner. We developed numerical and physical phantoms of a human body for evaluation of mobile handset antennas at 28 GHz. While the numerical human model retains a realistic and accurate body shape, our physical phantom has much simpler hexagonal cross-section to represent a body. Gains of the phased antenna array configuration on a mobile phone chassis, called co-located array is numerically and experimentally evaluated. The array is formed by placing two sets of 4-element dual-polarized patch antenna arrays, called two modules, at two locations of a mobile phone chassis. Modules are intended to collect the maximum amount of energy to the single transceiver chain. Spherical coverage of the realized gain by the array shows that the experimental statistics of the realized gains across entire solid angles agree with numerical simulations. We thereby demonstrate that our antenna evaluation method reproduces the reality and our phantom serves repeatable tests of antenna array prototypes at 28 GHz.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 5 May 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • millimeter-wave
  • antenna array
  • mobile phone
  • spherical coverage
  • phantom
  • user effect


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