Emission Reduction Potential of Different Types of Finnish Buildings through Energy Retrofits

Janne Hirvonen*, Juha Jokisalo, Paula Sankelo, Tuomo Niemelä, Risto Kosonen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
65 Downloads (Pure)


Energy retrofitting of buildings shows great potential in reducing CO2 emissions. However, most retrofitting studies only focus on a single building type. This paper shows the relative potential in six Finnish building types, to identify possible focus areas for future retrofits in Finland. Data from previous optimization studies was used to provide optimal cases for comparison. Energy demand of the buildings was generated through dynamic simulation with the IDA-ICE software. The cases were compared according to emissions reduction, investment and life cycle cost. It was found that, in all buildings, it was possible to reduce emissions cost-neutrally by 20% to 70% in buildings with district heating and by 70% to 95% using heat pumps. Single-family homes with oil or wood boilers switching to heat pumps had the greatest emission reduction potential. More stringent requirements for energy efficiency could be mandated during building renovation.
Original languageEnglish
Article number234
Pages (from-to)1-23
Number of pages23
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • energy retrofit
  • heat pump
  • CO2 emissions
  • building stock


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