Emission Abatement Technology Selection, Routing and Speed Optimization of Hybrid Ships

Antti Ritari, Kirsi Spoof-Tuomi, Janne Huotari, Seppo Niemi, Kari Tammi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
63 Downloads (Pure)


This paper evaluates the effect of a large-capacity electrical energy storage, e.g., Li-ionbattery, on optimal sailing routes, speeds, fuel choice, and emission abatement technology selection. Despite rapid cost reduction and performance improvement, current Li-ion chemistries are infeasible for providing the total energy demand for ocean-crossing ships because the energy density is up to two orders of magnitude less than in liquid hydrocarbon fuels. However, limited distance zero-emission port arrival, mooring, and port departure are attainable. In this context, we formulate two groups of numerical problems. First, the well-known Emission Control Area (ECA) routing problem is extended with battery-powered zero-emission legs. ECAs have incentivized ship operators to choose longer distance routes to avoid using expensive low sulfur fuel required for compliance, resulting in increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The second problem evaluates the trade-off between battery capacity and speed on battery-powered zero-emission port arrival and departurelegs. We develop a mixed-integer quadratically constrained program to investigate the least cost system configuration and operation. We find that the optimal speed is up to 50% slower on battery-powered legs compared to the baseline without zero-emission constraint. The slower speed on the zero-emission legs is compensated by higher speed throughout the rest of the voyage, which may increase the total amount of GHG emissions.
Original languageEnglish
Article number944
Number of pages21
JournalJournal of Marine Science and Engineering
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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