Elemental balance of SRF production process: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Research units

  • Lassila & Tikanoja Plc
  • VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland


In the production of solid recovered fuel (SRF), certain waste components have excessive influence on the quality of product. The proportion of rubber, plastic (hard) and certain textiles was found to be critical as to the elemental quality of SRF. The mass flow of rubber, plastic (hard) and textiles (to certain extent, especially synthetic textile) components from input waste stream into the output streams of SRF production was found to play the decisive role in defining the elemental quality of SRF. This paper presents the mass flow of polluting and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in SRF production. The SRF was produced from municipal solid waste (MSW) through mechanical treatment (MT). The results showed that of the total input chlorine content to process, 55% was found in the SRF and 30% in reject material. Of the total input arsenic content, 30% was found in the SRF and 45% in fine fraction. In case of cadmium, lead and mercury, of their total input content to the process, 62%, 38% and 30%, respectively, was found in the SRF. Among the components of MSW, rubber material was identified as potential source of chlorine, containing 8.0 wt.% of chlorine. Plastic (hard) and textile components contained 1.6 and 1.1. wt.% of chlorine, respectively. Plastic (hard) contained higher lead and cadmium content compared with other waste components, i.e. 500 mg kg-1 and 9.0 mg kg-1, respectively.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)38-46
Number of pages9
JournalWaste management and Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Research areas

  • Solid recovered fuel, municipal solid waste, household energy waste, elemental balance, polluting and potentially toxic elements, DEMOLITION WASTE, FLOW-ANALYSIS, ENERGY, MASS, CONSTRUCTION, QUALITY

ID: 1501176