Electronic and electrochemical doping of graphene by surface adsorbates

Hugo Pinto, Alexander Markevich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

81 Citations (Scopus)
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Many potential applications of graphene require its precise and controllable doping with charge carriers. Being a two-dimensional material graphene is extremely sensitive to surface adsorbates, so its electronic properties can be effectively modified by deposition of different atoms and molecules. In this paper, we review two mechanisms of graphene doping by surface adsorbates, namely electronic and electrochemical doping. Although, electronic doping has been extensively studied and discussed in the literature, much less attention has been paid to electrochemical doping. This mechanism can, however, explain the doping of graphene by adsorbates for which no charge transfer is expected within the electronic doping model. In addition, electrochemical doping is in the origin of the hysteresis effects often observed in graphene-based field effect transistors when operating in the atmospheric environment.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1842-1848
JournalBeilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Publication statusPublished - 2014
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • adsorbates
  • doping
  • electrochemical
  • electronic
  • graphene


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