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We investigate the distribution of waiting times between electrons emitted from a periodically driven single-electron turnstile. To this end, we develop a scheme for analytic calculations of the waiting time distributions for arbitrary periodic driving protocols. We illustrate the general framework by considering a driven tunnel junction before moving on to the more involved single-electron turnstile. The waiting time distributions are evaluated at low temperatures for square-wave and harmonic driving protocols. In the adiabatic regime, the dynamics of the turnstile is synchronized with the external drive. As the nonadiabatic regime is approached, the waiting time distribution becomes dominated by cycle-missing events in which the turnstile fails to emit within one or several periods. We also discuss the influence of finite electronic temperatures. The waiting time distributions provide a useful characterization of the driven single-electron turnstile with complementary information compared to what can be learned from conventional current measurements.