Electron-Beam Manipulation of Silicon Impurities in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

Kimmo Mustonen*, Alexander Markevich, Mukesh Tripathi, Heena Inani, Er Xiong Ding, Aqeel Hussain, Clemens Mangler, Esko I. Kauppinen, Jani Kotakoski, Toma Susi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
146 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

The recent discovery that impurity atoms in crystals can be manipulated with focused electron irradiation has opened novel perspectives for top-down atomic engineering. These achievements have been enabled by advances not only in electron optics and microscope stability but also in the preparation of suitable materials with impurity elements incorporated via ion and electron-beam irradiation or chemical means. Here it is shown that silicon heteroatoms introduced via plasma irradiation into the lattice of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) can be manipulated using a focused 55–60 keV electron probe aimed at neighboring carbon sites. Moving the silicon atom mainly along the longitudinal axis of large 2.7 nm diameter tubes, more than 90 controlled lattice jumps are recorded and the relevant displacement cross sections are estimated. Molecular dynamics simulations show that even in 2 nm diameter SWCNTs, the threshold energies for out-of-plane dynamics are different than in graphene, and depend on the orientation of the silicon-carbon bond with respect to the electron beam as well as the local bonding of the displaced carbon atom and its neighbors. Atomic-level engineering of SWCNTs where the electron wave functions are more strictly confined than in 2D materials may enable the fabrication of tunable electronic resonators and other devices.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1901327
Pages (from-to)1-7
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • atom manipulation
  • heteroatoms
  • nanotechnology
  • STEM

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  • Projects

    FEDOC / Kauppinen

    Raula, J., Liao, Y., Zhang, Q., Kauppinen, E., Khan, S. A. & Laiho, P.

    01/06/201630/06/2019

    Project: Business Finland: Other research funding

    Sustainable platinum group metal free catalyst materials

    Liao, Y., Kauppinen, E. & Khan, S. A.

    01/09/201524/09/2019

    Project: Academy of Finland: Other research funding

    Cite this

    Mustonen, K., Markevich, A., Tripathi, M., Inani, H., Ding, E. X., Hussain, A., ... Susi, T. (2019). Electron-Beam Manipulation of Silicon Impurities in Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes. Advanced Functional Materials, 1-7. [1901327]. https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201901327