Electroencephalographic signals during anesthesia recorded from surface and depth electrodes

Ville Jäntti*, Tuomo Ylinen, Narayan Puthanmadam Subramaniyam, Kotoe Kamata, Arvi Yli-Hankala, Pasi Kauppinen, Eila Sonkajärvi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Purpose: Anesthesiologists have increasingly started to use EEG-based indexes to estimate the level and type of unconsciousness. However, the physiology and biophysics are poorly understood in anesthesiological literature. Methods: EEG was recorded from electrodes on the surface of head, including scalp, as well as DBS (deep brain stimulation) electrodes implanted deep in the brain. Mathematical modeling with a realistic head model was performed to create illustrative images of the sensitivity of electrode montages. Results: EEG pattern of anesthesia, burst-suppression, is recordable outside of scalp area as well in the depth of brain because the EEG current loops produce recordable voltage gradients in the whole head. The typical electrodes used in anesthesia monitoring are most sensitive to basal surface of frontal lobes as well as frontal and mesial parts of temporal lobes. Conclusions: EEG currents create closed-loops, which flow from the surface of the cortex and then return to the inside of the hemispheres. In the case of widespread synchronous activity like physiological sleep or anesthesia, the currents recorded with surface and depth electrodes return through the base of brain and skull.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)934-943
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Biology
Volume94
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 3 Oct 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • anesthesia
  • EEG
  • electrode
  • montage
  • sensitivity

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