Electrochemical Detection of Morphine in Untreated Human Capillary Whole Blood

Elsi Verrinder, Niklas Wester, Elli Leppänen, Tuomas Lilius, Eija Kalso, Bjørn Mikladal, Ilkka Varjos, Jari Koskinen, Tomi Laurila*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)
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Disposable single-use electrochemical sensor strips were used for quantitative detection of small concentrations of morphine in untreated capillary whole blood. Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) networks were fabricated on a polymer substrate to produce flexible, reproducible sensor strips with integrated reference and counter electrodes, compatible with industrial-scale processes. A thin Nafion coating was used on top of the sensors to enable direct electrochemical detection in whole blood. These sensors were shown to detect clinically relevant concentrations of morphine both in buffer and in whole blood samples. Small 38 μL finger-prick blood samples were spiked with 2 μL of morphine solution of several concentrations and measured without precipitation of proteins or any other further pretreatment. A linear range of 0.5-10 μM was achieved in both matrices and a detection limit of 0.48 μM in buffer. In addition, to demonstrate the applicability of the sensor in a point-of-care device, single-determination measurements were done with capillary samples from three subjects. An average recovery of 60% was found, suggesting that the sensor only measures the free, unbound fraction of the drug. An interference study with other opioids and possible interferents showed the selectivity of the sensor. This study clearly indicates that these Nafion/SWCNT sensor strips show great promise as a point-of-care rapid test for morphine in blood.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11563-11569
Number of pages7
JournalACS Omega
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - 4 May 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


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