Electrical machines are generating and using most of the electrical energy converted worldwide from fossil fuels or renewable sources. An optimized electrical machine means not only less input energy used but also higher electromechanical energy available as output. This is translated into getting more with less and having an impact on the total amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere, thus mitigating global warming. Benefiting from the latest developments in the electrical machine field are various industries such as electric propulsion [new electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid EVs (HEVs)], renewable energy harvesting, consumer applications, and military and aerospace products. This article brings together the contributions from several authors working in academia and industrial research and development centers and comprises a collection of short analyses dedicated to the hottest topics in the electrical machine research community. The article focuses on special and difficult problems to be solved in the design process of the most important electrical machine topologies. The topics discussed cover new machine topologies such as fractional slot winding motors and synchronous reluctance motors; electromagnetic, mechanical, and thermal problems in permanent magnet (PM) machines design; operation of high-speed machines and high-power turbo generators; noise and vibration reduction in switched reluctance motors (SRMs) for automotive applications; high-efficiency induction machines (IMs) configurations compatible with the new international standard and a comprehensive analysis of universal motors (UMs).