Electric field envelope focality in superficial brain areas with linear alignment montage in temporal interference stimulation

Akimasa Hirata*, Yusuke Akazawa, Sachiko Kodera, Naofumi Otsuru, Ilkka Laakso

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

8 Downloads (Pure)


Temporal interference stimulation (TIS) uses two pairs of conventional transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) electrodes, each with a different frequency, to generate a time-varying electric field (EF) envelope (EFE). The EFE focality in primary somatosensory and motor cortex areas of a standard human brain was computed using newly defined linear alignment montages. Sixty head volume conductor models constructed from magnetic resonance images were considered to evaluate interindividual variability. Six TIS and two tACS electrode montages were considered, including linear and rectangular alignments. EFEs were computed using the scalar-potential finite-difference method. The computed EFE was projected onto the standard brain space for each montage. Computational results showed that TIS and tACS generated different EFE and EF distributions in postcentral and precentral gyri regions. For TIS, the EFE amplitude in the target areas had lower variability than the EF strength of tACS. However, bipolar tACS montages showed higher focality in the superficial postcentral and precentral gyri regions than in TIS. TIS generated greater EFE penetration than bipolar tACS at depths <5–10 mm below the brain surface. From group-level analysis, tACS with a bipolar montage was preferred for targets <5–10 mm in depth (gyral crowns) and TIS for deeper targets. TIS with a linear alignment montage could be an effective method for deep structures and sulcal walls. These findings provide valuable insights into the choice of TIS and tACS for stimulating specific brain regions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number108697
Number of pages8
JournalComputers in Biology and Medicine
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2024
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Electric field envelope
  • Interindividual variability
  • Neuromodulation
  • Temporal interference stimulation
  • Volume conductor model


Dive into the research topics of 'Electric field envelope focality in superficial brain areas with linear alignment montage in temporal interference stimulation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this