Electric and hybrid electric non-road mobile machinery – present situation and future trends

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review


Research units

  • VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland


Electrification of non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) is a growing trend. This paper highlights the potential of electric and hybrid powertrains in different NRMM sectors and elaborates the factors that may hinder the development. The NRMM sectors, the vehicle types, their operation and duty cycles and market shares are described. Comparison between the typical duty cycles and operation of on-road and off-road vehicles is performed in order to gain insight into the specific features of off-road vehicles. The development of NRMM is subject to various drivers that range from customer needs to fuel and energy prices and rules and legislation. The main results of our study are 1) a review of the present status and analysis of the future trends and potential of electrification and hybridization of NRMM and, 2) propositions for overcoming the challenges
that are related to the electrification and hybridization of NRMM.


Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication29th International Electric Vehicle Symposium 2016 (EVS29)
Publication statusPublished - 2016
MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
EventInternational Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition - Montreal, Canada
Duration: 19 Jun 201622 Jun 2016
Conference number: 29


ConferenceInternational Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition
Abbreviated titleEVS

    Research areas

  • electric powertrain, emissions, hybrid powertrain, hybridization, non-road mobile machinery

ID: 8799031