Electric and hybrid electric non-road mobile machinery - present situation and future trends

Antti Lajunen*, Jussi Suomela, Jenni Pippuri, Kari Tammi, Teemu Lehmuspelto, Panu Sainio

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Electrification of non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) is a growing trend. This paper highlights the potential of electric and hybrid powertrains in different NRMM sectors and elaborates the factors that may hinder the development. The NRMM sectors, the vehicle types, their operation and duty cycles and market shares are described. Comparison between the typical duty cycles and operation of on-road and off-road vehicles is performed in order to gain insight into the specific features of off-road vehicles. The development of NRMM is subject to various drivers that range from customer needs to fuel and energy prices and rules and legislation. The main results of our study are 1) a review of the present status and analysis of the future trends and potential of electrification and hybridization of NRMM and, 2) propositions for overcoming the challenges that are related to the electrification and hybridization of NRMM.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberWEVJ8-0172
Pages (from-to)172-183
Number of pages12
JournalWorld Electric Vehicle Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2016
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed
EventInternational Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition - Montreal, Canada
Duration: 19 Jun 201622 Jun 2016
Conference number: 29


  • Electric powertrain
  • Emissions
  • Hybrid powertrain
  • Hybridization
  • Non-road mobile machinery


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