Elastic Modulus, Thermal Expansion, and Pyrolysis Shrinkage of Norway Spruce Under High Temperature

Tito Adibaskoro*, Michalina Makowska, Aleksi Rinta-Paavola, Stefania Fortino, Simo Hostikka

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)
96 Downloads (Pure)


The orthotropic and temperature-dependent nature of the mechanical properties of wood is well recognized. However, past studies of mechanical properties at elevated temperatures are either limited to temperatures below 200 °C or focus only on the direction parallel to grain. The effect of time-dependent pyrolysis during measurement is often neglected. This paper presents a novel method for determining elastic modulus at high temperatures and thermal expansion coefficient in different orthotropic directions via Dynamic Mechanical-Thermal Analyser (DMTA). The method allows for drying, drying verification, and measurement in one chamber, eliminating the possibility of moisture reabsorption from ambient air. The repeatable measurements can be carried out in temperatures up to 325°C, adequate for observing time-dependent pyrolysis during measurement. Results of the measurements of Norway Spruce provide data of its mechanical response at temperature range previously not explored widely, as well as in the orthotropic direction. Time-dependent behaviour was observed in the thermal expansion and shrinkage experiment, where above 250°C the amount of shrinkage depends on heating rate. At such temperature, elastic moduli measurement also shows time dependence, where longer heating at certain temperature slightly increases the measured elastic modulus. Additionally, bilinear regression of the relationship between elastic moduli and temperature shows quantitatively good fit. Numerical simulation of the DMTA temperature history and wood chemical components mass losses show the onset of shrinkage and onset of hemicellulose mass loss occurring at around the same time, while decomposition of cellulose correlate with the sudden loss of elastic moduli.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2451-2490
Number of pages40
JournalFire Technology
Issue number5
Early online date30 Apr 2021
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • DMTA
  • Elastic moduli
  • Norway spruce
  • Pyrolysis
  • Shrinkage
  • Thermal expansion


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