Effect of primary and secondary alcohols as oxygenated additives on the performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine

M. A. Mujtaba*, Haeng Muk Cho, H. H. Masjuki, M. A. Kalam, M. Farooq, Manzoore Elahi M. Soudagar, M. Gul, Asif Afzal, Waqar Ahmed, Asad Raza, T. M.Yunus Khan, Shahid Bashir, Zeeshan Ahmad

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)
44 Downloads (Pure)


The demand for renewable energy sources is gradually escalating due to the spontaneously growing population and global economic development. The access to fossil fuels is gradually declining due to the limited available reserves. Hence, renewable energy resources, technology choice, and energy policy are always being revised due to the modernization of society. Meanwhile, the liquid energy sources such as methyl ester from locally produced vegetable oils are readily accepted by many countries globally, although it is currently being blended (up to 20%) with diesel. Oxides of nitrogen are the most substantial emissions from diesel engines produced due to high combustion temperature. The addition of alcohol in the fuel reduces the NOx formation since alcohols have high latent heat of evaporation. The present study's primary purpose is to investigate the effect of different alcohol types on engine performance and emission characteristics. For this purpose, seven test fuels and neat diesel were used. The test fuels P20 (20% palm biodiesel with 70% neat diesel and 10% alcohol on a volume basis), D70P20E10, D70P20Pr10, D70P20B10, D70P20Pe10, D70P20H10 were prepared and tested on a single-cylinder, 4-stroke, DI-diesel engine at different speeds at 100 % load. The P20E10 ternary fuel blend illustrated the most practical combination of all the bioethanol-based blends, which considerably improves the BTE, BSFC and reduces NOxformation at high speed compared to other types of alcoholic fuel blends. Also, the P20E10 fuel blend improved the cloud point of neat diesel.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1116-1124
Number of pages9
JournalEnergy Reports
Early online date19 Jan 2021
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Alcohols
  • Diesel engine
  • Emission
  • Nitrogen oxide
  • Palm biodiesel


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