Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) based on lipid A produced by bacteria are of interest due to their bioactivity in stimulating immune responses, as are simpler synthetic components or analogues. Here, the self-assembly in water of two monodisperse lipid A derivatives based on simplified bacterial LPS structures is examined and compared to that of a native Escherichia coli LPS using small-angle X-ray scattering and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. The critical aggregation concentration is obtained from fluorescence probe experiments, and conformation is probed using circular dichroism spectroscopy. The E. coli LPS is found to form wormlike micelles, whereas the synthetic analogues bearing six lipid chains and with four or two saccharide head groups (Kdo2-lipid A and monophosphoryl lipid A) self-assemble into nanosheets or vesicles, respectively. These observations are rationalized by considering the surfactant packing parameter.