Effect of delay equalization on loudspeaker responses

Aki Mäkivirta*, Juho Liski, Vesa Välimäki

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
63 Downloads (Pure)


The impulse response of a generalized two-way loudspeaker is modeled and is delay equalized using digital filters. The dominant features of a loudspeaker are low and high corner roll-off characteristics and the behavior at the crossover points. The proposed model characterizes also the main effects of the mass-compliance resonant system. The impulse response, its logarithm and spectrogram, and the magnitude and group delay responses are visualized and compared with those measured from a two-way loudspeaker. The model explains the typical group-delay variations and magnitude-response deviations from a flat response in the passband. The group-delay equalization of the loudspeaker is demonstrated in two different methods. The first method, the time-alignment of the tweeter and woofer elements using a bulk delay, is shown to cause ripple in the magnitude response. The second method, which flattens the group delay of the speaker model in the whole audio range, leads to preringing in the impulse response.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication144th Audio Engineering Society International Convention 2018
PublisherAudio Engineering Society
Number of pages10
ISBN (Print)9781510864740
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2018
MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
EventAudio Engineering Society Convention - Milan, Italy
Duration: 23 May 201826 May 2018
Conference number: 144


ConferenceAudio Engineering Society Convention
Abbreviated titleAES


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