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Impregnation modification of wood with melamine formaldehyde resin reduces the adverse effects caused by moisture uptake, but the underlying modes of action are not fully understood. The present study showed that it is crucial to understand the sorption behavior of the pure resin when interpreting the behavior of resin-modified wood. Furthermore, the applied heat-curing conditions had a significant effect on the moisture uptake of resin-modified wood. At the same resin loads, dry curing conditions were more effective in causing a cell wall bulking effect than wet curing conditions. This reduced the water-accessible cell wall pore volume in dry cured wood and counterbalanced the moisture uptake by the resin. Deuterium exchange measurements suggested that the occupancy of cell wall pores reduced the number of simultaneously active sorption sites. However, there was no evidence that a swelling restraint or reduced mechanical relaxation affected the water sorption of resin-modified wood significantly.