Effect of apartment building energy renovation on hourly power demand

Janne Hirvonen*, Juha Jokisalo, Juhani Heljo, Risto Kosonen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)
142 Downloads (Pure)


Optimal energy renovations of apartment buildings in Finland have a great impact on annual energy demand. However, reduction of energy demand does not necessarily translate into similar changes in peak power demand. Four different types of apartment buildings, representing the Finnish apartment building stock, were examined after optimal energy retrofits to see the influence of retrofitting on hourly power demand. Switching from district heating to ground-source heat pumps reduced emissions significantly under current energy mix. However, the use of ground-source heat pumps increased hourly peak electricity demand by 46–153%, compared to district heated apartment buildings. The corresponding increase in electrical energy demand was 30–108% in the peak month of January. This could increase the use of high emission peak power plants and negate some of the emission benefits. Solar thermal collectors and heat recovery systems could reduce purchased heating energy to zero in summer. Solar electricity could reduce median power demand in summer, but had only a little effect on peak power demand. The reduction in peak power demand after energy retrofits was less than the reduction in energy demand.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Sustainable Energy
Publication statusPublished - 9 May 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • apartment building
  • district heating
  • energy performance
  • Energy retrofits
  • greenhouse gas emissions
  • power demand


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