Dry demagnetization cryostat for sub-millikelvin helium experiments: Refrigeration and thermometry

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We demonstrate successful “dry” refrigeration of quantum fluids down to T = 0.16 mK by using copper nuclear demagnetization stage that is pre-cooled by a pulse-tube-based dilution refrigerator. This type of refrigeration delivers a flexible and simple sub-mK solution to a variety of needs including experiments with superfluid 3He. Our central design principle was to eliminate relative vibrations between the high-field magnet and the nuclear refrigeration stage, which resulted in the minimum heat leak of Q = 4.4 nW obtained in field of 35 mT. For thermometry, we employed a quartz tuning fork immersed into liquid 3He. We show that the fork oscillator can be considered as self-calibrating in superfluid 3He at the crossover point from hydrodynamic into ballistic quasiparticle regime.
Original languageEnglish
Article number085106
Pages (from-to)1-6
Number of pages6
JournalReview of Scientific Instruments
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2014
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Copper
  • Demagnetization
  • Helium
  • Refrigerators
  • Thermometers


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