Direct measurement of residual strains in CFRP-tungsten hybrids using embedded strain gauges

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


  • M. Kanerva
  • Paulo Antunes
  • E. Sarlin
  • O. Orell
  • J. Jokinen
  • M. Wallin
  • T. Brander
  • J. Vuorinen

Research units

  • Tampere University of Technology
  • University of Aveiro
  • Instituto de Telecomunicações


In this work, the implementation of fully embedded electrical resistance strain gauges was studied for a hybrid material system. The samples were laminated using carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) and tungsten. The raw materials and the adhesive used for bonding strain sensors were characterized to understand the overlapping sources of non-linearity and error. Test-specific correction functions for a thermal output were determined for the strain gauge measurement and comparative fiber Bragg grating (FBG) measurement. The strain accumulation in the fiber direction during the cool-down phase for different cure cycles was analyzed using a finite element simulation. According to the results, embedded electrical resistance strain gauges can be used to determine the thermal expansion of a hybrid laminate with acceptable accuracy when thermal output is compensated for using case-specific correction functions accounting for measurement setup, the stiffness of the gauge bonding adhesive, and embedding.


Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)352-363
Number of pages12
JournalMaterials and Design
Publication statusPublished - 5 Aug 2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Research areas

  • CFRP, Hybrid laminate, Residual stress, Strain measuring

ID: 13274655