Direct measurement of residual strains in CFRP-tungsten hybrids using embedded strain gauges

M. Kanerva*, Paulo Antunes, Essi Sarlin, O. Orell, Jarno Jokinen, M. Wallin, T. Brander, J. Vuorinen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


In this work, the implementation of fully embedded electrical resistance strain gauges was studied for a hybrid material system. The samples were laminated using carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) and tungsten. The raw materials and the adhesive used for bonding strain sensors were characterized to understand the overlapping sources of non-linearity and error. Test-specific correction functions for a thermal output were determined for the strain gauge measurement and comparative fiber Bragg grating (FBG) measurement. The strain accumulation in the fiber direction during the cool-down phase for different cure cycles was analyzed using a finite element simulation. According to the results, embedded electrical resistance strain gauges can be used to determine the thermal expansion of a hybrid laminate with acceptable accuracy when thermal output is compensated for using case-specific correction functions accounting for measurement setup, the stiffness of the gauge bonding adhesive, and embedding.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)352-363
Number of pages12
JournalMaterials and Design
Publication statusPublished - 5 Aug 2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • CFRP
  • Hybrid laminate
  • Residual stress
  • Strain measuring


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