Direct laser writing and geometrical analysis of scaffolds with designed pore architecture for three-dimensional cell culturing

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


  • Elli Käpylä
  • Dogu Baran Aydogan
  • Sanni Virjula
  • Sari Vanhatupa
  • Susanna Miettinen
  • Jari Hyttinen
  • Minna Kellomäki

Research units

  • Tampere University of Technology
  • BioMediTech Finland
  • Tampere University
  • Pirkanmaa Hospital District


Traditional scaffold fabrication methods used in tissue engineering enable only limited control over essential parameters such as porosity, pore size and pore interconnectivity. In this study, we designed and fabricated five different types of three-dimensionally interconnected, highly porous scaffolds with precise control over the scaffold characteristics. We used two-photon polymerization (2PP) with a commercial polymer-ceramic material (Ormocomp®) for scaffold fabrication. Also for the first time, we analyzed the 2PP fabrication accuracy with respect to scaffold design parameters. Our results showed that the porosity values decreased up to 13% compared to the design specifications due to the fabrication process and the shrinkage of the material. Finally, we showed that our scaffolds supported human adipose stem cell adhesion and proliferation in a six day culture. By precise tuning of scaffold parameters, our design and fabrication method provides a novel approach for studying the effect of scaffold architecture on cell behavior in vitro.


Original languageEnglish
Article number115016
JournalJournal of Micromechanics and Microengineering
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2012
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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