Direct ink writing of aloe vera/cellulose nanofibrils bio-hydrogels

Hossein Bani Asadi, Rubina Ajdary, Jon Trifol Guzman, Orlando J. Rojas, Jukka Seppälä*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

57 Citations (Scopus)
275 Downloads (Pure)


Direct-ink-writing (DIW) of hydrogels has become an attractive research area due to its capability to fabricate intricate, complex, and highly customizable structures at ambient conditions for various applications, including biomedical purposes. In the current study, cellulose nanofibrils reinforced aloe vera bio-hydrogels were utilized to develop 3D geometries through the DIW technique. The hydrogels revealed excellent viscoelastic properties enabled extruding thin filaments through a nozzle with a diameter of 630 μm. Accordingly, the lattice structures were printed precisely with a suitable resolution. The 3D-printed structures demonstrated significant wet stability due to the high aspect ratio of the nano- and microfibrils cellulose, reinforced the hydrogels, and protected the shape from extensive shrinkage upon drying. Furthermore, all printed samples had a porosity higher than 80% and a high-water uptake capacity of up to 46 g/g. Altogether, these fully bio-based, porous, and wet stable 3D structures might have an opportunity in biomedical fields.

Original languageEnglish
Article number118114
Number of pages12
JournalCarbohydrate Polymers
Early online date24 Apr 2021
Publication statusPublished - 15 Aug 2021
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Aloe vera
  • Cellulose nanofibrils
  • Hydrogel
  • 3D printing


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