Direct Driven Hydraulic Drive: Effect of Oil on Efficiency in Sub-Zero Conditions

Tatiana Minav, Jani Heikkinen, Thomas Schimmel, Matti Pietola

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)
162 Downloads (Pure)


Direct driven hydraulic drives (DDH) have the advantages of compact high power density in hydraulic systems and flexible control of electric motors. These advantages can benefit non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) applications. However, maintaining high efficiency while working in sub-zero conditions with NRMM is challenging. Therefore, this paper investigates the effect of hydraulic oil on the efficiency of a DDH in a cold environment for an NRMM application. In the DDH setup, the speed and position control of a double-acting cylinder was implemented directly with an electric motor drive in a closed-loop system without the conventional control valves. Efficiency measurements of the DDH setup with two oils (conventional multi-grade and high-performance) were conducted under different operating conditions (speed and payload) and environmental conditions (temperature in °C). The paper provides an evaluation of the electro-hydraulic system and a discussion on the usage of hydraulic oil by non-road mobile working machines in sub-zero conditions. An experimental investigation demonstrated an improvement in efficiency of 5%-unit at 22 °C, from 2%-unit to 5%-unit at 3 °C, and of almost a 10%-unit at temperatures below zero (−10 °C) by changing oil
Original languageEnglish
Article number219
Number of pages10
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 11 Jan 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • hydraulic actuator
  • hydraulic drives
  • electric drives
  • efficiency
  • losses
  • zonal hydraulics
  • direct driven hydraulics
  • non-road mobile working machines
  • low temperature
  • high-performance oil
  • Hydraulic drives
  • Zonal hydraulics
  • Hydraulic actuator
  • Direct driven hydraulics
  • Losses
  • Electric drives
  • Efficiency
  • High-performance oil
  • Non-road mobile working machines
  • Low temperature


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