Direct Driven Hydraulic Drive: Effect of Oil on Efficiency in Sub-Zero Conditions

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Research units

  • Saint Petersburg Electrotechnical University
  • Evonik Industries AG


Direct driven hydraulic drives (DDH) have the advantages of compact high power density in hydraulic systems and flexible control of electric motors. These advantages can benefit non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) applications. However, maintaining high efficiency while working in sub-zero conditions with NRMM is challenging. Therefore, this paper investigates the effect of hydraulic oil on the efficiency of a DDH in a cold environment for an NRMM application. In the DDH setup, the speed and position control of a double-acting cylinder was implemented directly with an electric motor drive in a closed-loop system without the conventional control valves. Efficiency measurements of the DDH setup with two oils (conventional multi-grade and high-performance) were conducted under different operating conditions (speed and payload) and environmental conditions (temperature in °C). The paper provides an evaluation of the electro-hydraulic system and a discussion on the usage of hydraulic oil by non-road mobile working machines in sub-zero conditions. An experimental investigation demonstrated an improvement in efficiency of 5%-unit at 22 °C, from 2%-unit to 5%-unit at 3 °C, and of almost a 10%-unit at temperatures below zero (−10 °C) by changing oil


Original languageEnglish
Article number219
Number of pages10
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 11 Jan 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

    Research areas

  • hydraulic actuator, hydraulic drives, electric drives, efficiency, losses, zonal hydraulics, direct driven hydraulics, non-road mobile working machines, low temperature, high-performance oil, Hydraulic drives, Zonal hydraulics, Hydraulic actuator, Direct driven hydraulics, Losses, Electric drives, Efficiency, High-performance oil, Non-road mobile working machines, Low temperature

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