Direct Activation of Cortical Neurons in the Primary Somatosensory Cortex of the Rat in Vivo Using Focused Ultrasound

Kush Tripathi, Tongsheng Zhang, Nathan McDannold, Yong Zhi Zhang, Gösta Ehnholm, Yoshio Okada*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

We address the recent controversy over whether focused ultrasound (FUS) activates cortical neurons directly or indirectly by initially activating auditory pathways. We obtained two types of evidence that FUS can directly activate cortical neurons. The depth profile of the local field potential (LFP) in the barrel cortex of the rat in vivo indicated a generator was located within the cortical gray matter. The onset and peak latencies of the initial component p1 were 3.2 ± 0.25 ms (mean ± standard error of the mean) and 7.6 ± 0.12 ms, respectively, for the direct cortical response (DCR), 6.8 ± 0.40 and 14.3 ± 0.54 ms for the FUS-evoked LFP (4 MHz, 3.2 MPa, 50 or 300 µs/pulse, 1–20 pulses at 1 kHz) and 6.9 ± 0.51 and 15.8 ± 0.94 ms for the LFP evoked by 1-ms deflection of the C2 whisker projecting to the same area. The peak latency of the FUS p1 was statistically (t-test) longer than the DCR, but shorter than the whisker p1 at p < 0.005.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2349-2360
Number of pages12
JournalULTRASOUND IN MEDICINE AND BIOLOGY
Volume46
Issue number9
Early online date1 Jan 2020
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2020
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

Keywords

  • Barrel cortex
  • Direct cortical stimulation
  • Focused ultrasound
  • Laminar analysis
  • Local field potential
  • Somatosensory cortex
  • Whisker

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