Digital Unique Component Manufacturing through Direct and Indirect Additive Manufacturing

Research output: ThesisMaster's thesis


The objective of this study is to define an optimum additive manufacturing process which incorporates not only low volume production and short delivery time but also missing, or defective documentation of the industrial components. This inevitably requires the integration of digitization through reverse engineering and state of the art direct and indirect additive manufacturing methods as these are built upon the fundamentals of lead time and cost efficiency which complement business potentials.

The work was commissioned by Outotec (Finland) Oy and Aalto University. The data of exemplary components was provided by Outotec (Finland) Oy. The digitization measures and the ISO/ASTM standard additive manufacturing methods were explored and an integrated screening and design process was developed. Cost and lead time analyses were performed in correspondence to exemplary components and their relative business advantages against conventional manufacturing methods were discovered. In addition, performance of two exemplary components was evaluated via additive manufacturing enabled optimization studies. In order to validate and verify the suitability of the manufactured materials according to the predefined standards of Outotec (Finland) Oy, corrosion tests and tensile tests were performed.

As a result of this thesis, an additive manufacturing integrated screening algorithm and design process is developed through which costs and lead times of 15 industrial components are evaluated and are utilized for good advantage. In addition, design for additive manufacturing is used to enhance the performance of two industrial components and prototypes are manufactured in order to provide proof of concept. Finally, it is discovered that additively manufactured Stainless Steel 316L is not as corrosion resistant compared to wrought alloys of EN 1.4404 and EN 1.4432 in very aggressive corrosion environments and it has an ultimate tensile strength of approximately 595 MPa with 13% anisotropy in favour of horizontal print orientation. Whereas, additively manufactured Titanium Ti64 is corrosion resistant with respect to its bulk material with an ultimate tensile strength of approximately 1100 MPa containing 5% anisotropy in favour of horizontal print orientation. Overall, this study provided a fundamental workflow for implementation of industrial additive manufacturing for higher production efficiency.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationMaster's degree
Awarding Institution
  • Aalto University
  • School of Engineering
  • Partanen, Jouni, Supervising Professor
  • Salmi, Mika, Thesis Advisor
Thesis sponsors
Award date25 Sept 2017
Place of PublicationEspoo
Publication statusPublished - 25 Sept 2017
MoE publication typeG2 Master's thesis, polytechnic Master's thesis


  • direct and indirect additive manufacturing
  • 3D printing
  • design for additive manufacturing
  • topology optimization
  • corrosion testing
  • tensile testing


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