Different flexibility options for better system integration of wind power

Sannamari Pilpola*, Peter D. Lund

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)
258 Downloads (Pure)


Variable renewable electricity (VRE) will play an important role in future energy systems, but additional flexibility measures will be needed to integrate large-scale VRE into energy systems. Here we investigate the effectiveness of different flexibility options to integrate wind power, using the Finnish energy system as a case. The main flexibility options considered are sector-coupling such as power-to-heat and power-to-gas, energy storages, and electric vehicles. The results indicate that the share of wind power could be increased up to one third of all electricity, limited by the cross-border transmission capacity and the high share of nuclear power in the Finnish case, while simultaneously decreasing annual system costs and carbon emissions. Power-to-heat and wind power curtailment were the most cost-effective flexibility options. Furthermore, combined heat and power (CHP) and nuclear power could form a barrier to cost-effective wind power integration, suggesting that viewing the energy system as a whole provides valuable insight for wind power integration.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100368
Pages (from-to)1-11
JournalEnergy Strategy Reviews
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Energy system flexibility
  • Energy system modelling
  • Finland
  • Wind power integration


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