Different Approaches to Improve Energy Consumption of Battery Electric Buses

Antti Lajunen, Klaus Kivekäs, Francesco Baldi, Jari Vepsäläinen, Kari Tammi

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Transportation electrification is increasing and recently more focus has been directed on heavy vehicles and especially on city buses. Battery electric buses are inherently more energy efficient than diesel buses and the efficiency can be further increased by different methods. This paper evaluates the key factors that influence on the energy consumption of battery electric buses. A simulation model of a generic electric bus was developed in the Autonomie software. Simulations were carried out in different conditions including typical driving cycles and different climate conditions. Specific focus was given for minimizing the energy consumption by predictive driving. The simulation results were thoroughly analyzed in order to understand better the most efficient methods to improve energy consumption. According to the simulation results, the high level of auxiliary power (cold and hot climate conditions) increases the energy consumption significantly. There is a substantial variation of consumption between different driving cycles. This variation is mainly caused by the auxiliary power, transmission losses and mechanical braking. It was also observed that there is a strong linear correlation between driving aggressiveness and energy consumption.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2018 IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, VPPC 2018 - Proceedings
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-5386-6203-8
ISBN (Print)978-1-5386-6204-5
Publication statusPublished - 7 Jan 2019
MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
EventIEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference - Chicago, United States
Duration: 27 Aug 201830 Aug 2018
Conference number: 15

Publication series

NameIEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference
ISSN (Print)1938-8756


ConferenceIEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • Energy consumption
  • Batteries
  • Resistance
  • Aerodynamics
  • Urban areas
  • Drag
  • Simulation
  • Electric bus
  • Driving cycle
  • Predictive driving
  • Driving aggressiveness
  • driving cycle
  • driving aggressiveness
  • predictive driving
  • electric bus


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