Molecular electronics has great potential to surpass known limitations in conventional silicon-based technologies. The development of molecular electronics devices requires reliable strategies for connecting functional molecules by wire-like structures. To this end, diacetylene polymerization has been discussed as a very promising approach for contacting single molecules with a conductive polymer chain. A major challenge for future device fabrication is transferring this method to bulk insulator surfaces, which are mandatory to decouple the electronic structure of the functional molecules from the support surface. Here, we provide experimental evidence for diacetylene polymerization of 3,3′-(1,3-butadiyne-1,4-diyl)bisbenzoic acid precursors on the (10.4) surface of calcite, a bulk insulator with a band gap of around 6 eV. When deposited on the surface held at room temperature, ordered islands with a (1 × 3) superstructure are observed using dynamic atomic force microscopy. A distinct change is revealed upon heating the substrate to 485 K. After heating, molecular stripes with a characteristic inner structure are formed that excellently match the expected diacetylene polymer chains in appearance and repeat distance. The corresponding density functional theory computations reveal molecular-level bonding patterns of both the (1 × 3) superstructure and the formed striped structure, confirming the assignment of on-surface diacetylene polymerization. Transferring the concept of using diacetylene polymerization for creating conductive connections to bulk insulator surfaces paves the way towards application-relevant systems for future molecular electronic devices.