Development and characterization of the InVesalius Navigator software for navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation

Victor Hugo Souza*, Renan H. Matsuda, André S.C. Peres, Paulo Henrique J. Amorim, Thiago F. Moraes, Jorge Vicente L. Silva, Oswaldo Baffa

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Neuronavigation provides visual guidance of an instrument during procedures of neurological interventions, and has been shown to be a valuable tool for accurately positioning transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) coils relative to an individual's anatomy. Despite the importance of neuronavigation, its high cost, low portability, and low availability of magnetic resonance imaging facilities limit its insertion in research and clinical environments. New method: We have developed and validated the InVesalius Navigator as the first free, open-source software for image-guided navigated TMS, compatible with multiple tracking devices. A point-based, co-registration algorithm and a guiding interface were designed for tracking any instrument (e.g. TMS coils) relative to an individual's anatomy. Results: Localization, precision errors, and repeatability were measured for two tracking devices during navigation in a phantom and in a simulated TMS study. Errors were measured in two commercial navigated TMS systems for comparison. Localization error was about 1.5 mm, and repeatability was about 1 mm for translation and 1° for rotation angles, both within limits established in the literature. Comparison with existing methods: Existing TMS neuronavigation software programs are not compatible with multiple tracking devices, and do not provide an easy to implement platform for custom tools. Moreover, commercial alternatives are expensive with limited portability. Conclusions: InVesalius Navigator might contribute to improving spatial accuracy and the reliability of techniques for brain interventions by means of an intuitive graphical interface. Furthermore, the software can be easily integrated into existing neuroimaging tools, and customized for novel applications such as multi-locus and/or controllable-pulse TMS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)109-120
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Neuroscience Methods
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Co-registration
  • Coil positioning
  • Localization error
  • Neuronavigation
  • Surgical planning
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation


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