Designing resilient military logistics with additive manufacturing

Ilari Valtonen, Samu Rautio, Juha-Matti Lehtonen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review



In this study, the authors explore how novel and relevant technologies can change the overall design of systems, and which factors influence the design of resilient systems in particular. After evaluating the effects of these factors, the authors describe the potential role of AM-supported maintenance operations in military logistics and draw broader conclusions regarding designing for resilience.

The authors build a simulation model of the AM-supported maintenance capability of a mechanised battalion to analyse factors affecting its resilience. AM production capacity specifically refers to metal printing and was verified by data generated from 3D printing of the actual APC parts.

The current AM speed is not able to increase resilience at the depot level, so at present, increasing the spare parts inventory is a better way to improve resilience. However, with future improvements in speed the AM may become feasible in battlefield maintenance.
Practical implications

AM holds great promise in increasing resilience of especially the spare part logistics. At present technology, it is not yet fully realised in the case.

The authors suggest a concrete system performance measure, where reaching a concrete limit, system resilience is lost. The authors present arguments for a definition of resilience where pre-disruption activities are not part of resilience. The authors maintain that simulation, with its ability to include detail, is well-suited in design-for-resilience because supply chains are context dependent and disruptions unexpected.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages16
JournalContinuity & Resilience Review
Issue number1
Early online date28 Dec 2022
Publication statusPublished - 18 Apr 2023
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Resilience
  • Additive manufacturing
  • Simulation
  • Military logistics


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