Designing interactive systems for the experience of time

Lassi A. Liikkanen, Paula Gómez Gómez

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

    10 Citations (Scopus)


    User experience (UX) has become a central theme in user-centered design. It draws attention to the experiential side of use and sets new requirements for software design. Waiting and interruptions can be a source of negative experiences with interactive systems. This review paper discusses the subjective experience of time as a part of UX. It also provides advice on how to influence UX through time-considerate design. We start from the psychological theory of time perception and expand this cognitivist model to a direction compatible with affective computing. The outcome describes the interplay between cognition and affect through a concept of subjectively experienced time. We introduce six design guidelines for time-considerate design of everyday applications. Our design implications concern dialogues, progress indicators, and cost-effective system optimization relevant for UX. We point out the need for empirical research to fill in the gaps in the literature, particularly regarding user adjustment and its implications.

    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationProceedings of the 6th International Conference on Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces, DPPI 2013
    Number of pages10
    ISBN (Print)9781450321921
    Publication statusPublished - 2013
    MoE publication typeA4 Article in a conference publication
    EventACM DPPI Conference on Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces
    - Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
    Duration: 3 Sep 20135 Sep 2013
    Conference number: 6


    ConferenceACM DPPI Conference on Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces
    Abbreviated titleDPPI
    CountryUnited Kingdom
    CityNewcastle upon Tyne


    • concepts and paradigms
    • HCI design and evaluation methods
    • interaction design theory
    • psychology
    • user experience
    • user models

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