This paper presents a design process for a hand-immune mobile antenna system. Characteristic modes of a mobile phone and hand combination are analyzed to find the desired modes with good radiation properties. The efficient excitation of these modes is implemented utilizing the antenna cluster technique. The proposed mobile antenna design has a small ground clearance of only 2mm and can cover the 700–960MHz low band, 1700–2700MHz middle-high band with two multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antennas, and the 3300–3800MHz high band with four MIMO antennas. The measurement results confirm that the proposed characteristic mode analysis based design method in realistic use case leads to a robust antenna design with competitive performance.
- Characteristic mode analysis
- mobile handset antennas
- multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antennas
- user effect