Design Choices Framework for Co-creation Projects

Jung-Joo Lee*, Miia Jaatinen, Anna Salmi, Tuuli Mattelmäki, Riitta Smeds, Mari Holopainen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

48 Citations (Scopus)
383 Downloads (Pure)


Co-creation has been adopted in many recent design and innovation projects, bringing different stakeholders together and creating a shared understanding and new ideas through creative and participative approaches. Despite this increasing popularity, there is still a lack of a systematic understanding of key dimensions and design choices in co-creation projects due to contextual complexity and contingencies. In this paper, we develop the design choices framework for co-creation projects as a result of analyzing 13 co-creation projects from multiple fields, including design research, process innovation and service innovation. The design choices framework provides us with vocabularies that help to explain what kinds of dimensions co-creation projects are built on, what influences the formulation of co-creation projects and what informs the selection and development of methods. The framework also helps to assess and plan co-creation projects. We introduce ten design choices identified from the cross-case analysis and discuss their dynamic interrelations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15-31
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Journal of Design
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2018
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Co-creation
  • Design Choices
  • Design for Service


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