Densification of the ITRF2014 position and velocity solution in the Nordic and Baltic countries

Sonja Lahtinen*, Lotti Jivall, Pasi Häkli, Tarmo Kall, Karin Kollo, Ksenija Kosenko, Karolis Galinauskas, Dalia Prizginiene, Oddvar Tangen, Mette Weber, Maaria Nordman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


The growing need for a consistent and densified GNSS position and velocity solution for the Nordic and Baltic countries resulted in development of the joint GNSS Analysis Centre of the Nordic Geodetic Commission (NKG) in 2012. We first developed the methods of the operational processing and combination of solutions and then reprocessed the full data history between 1997 and 2017. In this study, we present an ITRF2014 densification for the area including 252 stations having more than 3 years of data. We combined all 20 years of daily solutions with full covariance matrices instead of station-wise analysis and analyzed the noise characteristics of the residual time series. We concluded that the flicker plus white noise uncertainty estimates were more robust than the general power-law estimates. Additionally, we found significant horizontal velocity differences at the co-located stations, pointing out biases not included in the formal uncertainties. The solution is more accurate and denser than any previous estimate, and it will be of great benefit for maintaining the reference frames in the Nordic and Baltic countries, as well as for the geodynamic studies in the area.

Original languageEnglish
Article number95
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2019
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • GNSS
  • Noise analysis
  • Reference frames
  • Time-series analysis
  • Uncertainties
  • Velocity field


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