Defining and Analyzing RRR business cases and models

Miriam Otoo, Solomie Gebrezgabher, Pay Drechsel, Krishna C. Rao, Sudarshana Fernando, Surendra K. Pradhan, Munir A. Hanjra, Manzoor Qadir, Mirko Winkler

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterScientificpeer-review


The objective of this second chapter is to explain how the cases were selected and analyzed and how the authors derived the business models. The starting point was the identification of ‘promising’ empirical resource recovery and re-use (RRR) enterprises and governmental projects. In other words, the presented models are essentially not theoretical but have been tried – in most cases – in the context of low- or middle-income countries. ‘Promising’ in this context means that the cases, which informed the models, moved beyond a fully-subsidized pilot stage or were never designed as such, and aim at cost recovery or profit with potential for replication and scaling up. It does not mean that the selected cases are flawless, and there are many lessons to learn from their challenges. With some exceptions, every model presented in the catalogue derived its information from several empirical cases, which allowed extracting and flagging their strengths and opportunities as well as possible weaknesses and threats.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationResource recovery from Waste
Subtitle of host publicationBusiness Models for Energy, Nutrient and Water Reuse in Low- and Middle-income Countries
EditorsMiriam Otoo, Pay Drechsel
Number of pages16
ISBN (Electronic)9781317703785 , 978-1-315-78086-3
ISBN (Print)9781138016552
Publication statusPublished - 2018
MoE publication typeA3 Part of a book or another research book

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