Defect identification in semiconductors with positron annihilation: Experiment and theory

F. Tuomisto, I. Makkonen

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature reviewScientificpeer-review

421 Citations (Scopus)
460 Downloads (Pure)


Positron annihilation spectroscopy is particularly suitable for studying vacancy-type defects in semiconductors. Combining state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical methods allows for detailed identification of the defects and their chemical surroundings. Also charge states and defect levels in the band gap are accessible. In this review the main experimental and theoretical analysis techniques are described. The usage of these methods is illustrated through examples in technologically important elemental and compound semiconductors. Future challenges include the analysis of noncrystalline materials and of transient defect-related phenomena.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1583-1631
Number of pages49
JournalReviews of Modern Physics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2013
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • point defects
  • positron annihilation spectroscopy
  • semiconductors


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