Decoupling for ecological sustainability: A categorisation and review of research literature

T. Vadén*, V. Lähde, A. Majava, Paavo Järvensivu, Tero Toivanen, Emma Hakala, J. T. Eronen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleScientificpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


The idea of decoupling “environmental bads” from “economic goods” has been proposed as a path towards sustainability by organizations such as the OECD and UN. Scientific consensus reports on environmental impacts (e.g., greenhouse gas emissions) and resource use give an indication of the kind of decoupling needed for ecological sustainability: global, absolute, fast-enough and long-enough. This goal gives grounds for a categorisation of the different kinds of decoupling, with regard to their relevance. We conducted a survey of recent (1990–2019) research on decoupling on Web of Science and reviewed the results in the research according to the categorisation. The reviewed 179 articles contain evidence of absolute impact decoupling, especially between CO2 (and SOX) emissions and evidence on geographically limited (national level) cases of absolute decoupling of land and blue water use from GDP, but not of economy-wide resource decoupling, neither on national nor international scales. Evidence of the needed absolute global fast-enough decoupling is missing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)236-244
Number of pages9
JournalEnvironmental Science and Policy
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2020
MoE publication typeA2 Review article in a scientific journal


  • Decoupling
  • Economy
  • GDP
  • Resources
  • Sustainability

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