Crystallization of glycine with ultrasound

Marjatta Louhi-Kultanen*, Milja Karjalainen, Jukka Rantanen, Mikko Huhtanen, Juha Kallas

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

101 Citations (Scopus)


Sonocrystallization has proved to be an efficient tool to influence the external appearance and structure of a crystalline product obtained by various crystallization methods. The present work focuses on high intensity sonocrystallization of glycine by varying amplitude of ultrasound with an ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz at two temperature ranges 40-50 and 20-30 °C in a jacketed 250-ml cooling crystallizer equipped with a stirrer. The polymorph composition of the obtained crystals was analyzed with a temperature variable X-ray powder diffractometer (XRPD). XRPD results showed that, besides the operating temperature, the glycine polymorphism was affected also by insonation. This was especially the case at the lower temperature range. Furthermore, based on the heat balance within the crystallizer, an increase in required cooling capacity was presented as a function of increasing ultrasound power. This study also showed, the higher the ultrasound amplitude the smaller the crystals obtained.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)23-29
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmaceutics
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 31 Aug 2006
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Crystal habit
  • Crystallization
  • Particle size
  • Polymorphism
  • Ultrasound


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