Coupling element-based dual-antenna structures for mobile terminal with hand effects

Abdullah Al Hadi Azremi*, Janne Ilvonen, Risto Valkonen, Jari Holopainen, Outi Kivekäs, Clemens Icheln, Pertti Vainikainen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents a comprehensive simulation study on the performance of coupling element-based dual-antenna structures on a mobile terminal at the 2,000 MHz Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) frequency band with varying two significant hand effects; vertical position of hand along terminal chassis, and distance between hand palm and terminal chassis. The results reveal that in uniformly distributed isotropic environment, there exists a gain imbalance between antenna elements due to hand effects and it is shown that a gain imbalance of 3.7 dB lead to a reduction of 1.9 dB in diversity gain at 99% reliability level using maximal ratio combining (MRC) technique. For a dual-antenna configuration, the impact of gain imbalance on diversity gain is more significant when only one antenna element is in close proximity to the hand, compared to when both antenna elements are in the presence of the hand. It is also shown that a dual-antenna structure with elements vertically oriented along the edges of a small 100 mm × 40 mm mobile terminal chassis achieves better performance in port-to-port isolation, gain imbalance and diversity gain compared to other studied dual-antenna configurations when the user's hand is present.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)146-157
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Wireless Information Networks
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2011
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Coupling element-based antenna
  • Dual-antenna structures
  • FDTD method
  • Hand effect
  • Multi-antenna system


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