Cost-effectiveness of energy performance renovation measures in Finnish brick apartment buildings

Tuomo Niemelä, Risto Kosonen, Juha Jokisalo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

48 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract The paper presents cost-optimal energy performance improving measures conducted in deep renovations of typical Finnish (cold climate) brick apartment buildings, built in the 1960’s. The study discusses the effects of different renovation measures on the energy performance and economic viability in a selected building. Energy performance is studied from the primary energy consumption’s perspective and cost-effective renovation measures to meet higher energy performance criteria are also studied. The cost-optimal renovation concepts to meet different energy performance criteria were determined from over 2 billion potential renovation measure combinations by using sophisticated simulation-based multi-objective optimisation (SBMOO) analysis, utilising the advanced Pareto-Archive NSGA-II genetic algorithm, as the main research method. The SBMOO analysis was used to minimise the primary energy consumption and the net present value of life-cycle cost over a 25-year discount period simultaneously. The results indicate that the cost optimum renovation solutions of the brick apartment building stock provide the same energy performance criteria as the current national minimum energy performance requirements of new apartment buildings. According to the study, the investments should be focused on high performance renewable energy production systems, which deliver the best return on investment. External financial support mechanisms are also required to encourage apartment building owners to conduct deep renovations towards nearly zero-energy apartment buildings.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)60-75
Number of pages16
JournalEnergy and Buildings
Publication statusPublished - 15 Feb 2017
MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed


  • Cost-optimal renovation
  • Cost-effectiveness
  • Optimisation
  • Energy efficiency
  • Heat pump system
  • Energy simulation

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