Continuous hypoxic culturing of human embryonic stem cells enhances Ssea-3 and Myc levels

Elisa Närvä, Juha-Pekka Pursiheimo, Asta Laiho, Nelly Rahkonen, Maheswara Reddy Emani, Miro Viitala, Kirsti Laurila, Roosa Sahla, Riikka Lund, Harri Lähdesmäki, Panu Jaakkola, Riitta Lahesmaa

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    Abstract

    Low oxygen tension (hypoxia) contributes critically to pluripotency of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) by preventing spontaneous differentiation and supporting self-renewal. However, it is not well understood how hESCs respond to reduced oxygen availability and what are the molecular mechanisms maintaining pluripotency in these conditions. In this study we characterized the transcriptional and molecular responses of three hESC lines (H9, HS401 and HS360) on short (2 hours), intermediate (24 hours) and prolonged (7 days) exposure to low oxygen conditions (4% O2). In response to prolonged hypoxia the expression of pluripotency surface marker SSEA-3 was increased. Furthermore, the genome wide gene-expression analysis revealed that a substantial proportion (12%) of all hypoxia-regulated genes in hESCs, were directly linked to the mechanisms controlling pluripotency or differentiation. Moreover, transcription of MYC oncogene was induced in response to continuous hypoxia. At the protein level MYC was stabilized through phosphorylation already in response to a short hypoxic exposure. Total MYC protein levels remained elevated throughout all the time points studied. Further, MYC protein expression in hypoxia was affected by silencing HIF2α, but not HIF1α. Since MYC has a crucial role in regulating pluripotency we propose that induction of sustained MYC expression in hypoxia contributes to activation of transcriptional programs critical for hESC self-renewal and maintenance of enhanced pluripotent state.
    Original languageEnglish
    Article numbere78847
    Pages (from-to)1-10
    JournalPloS one
    Volume8
    Issue number11
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2014
    MoE publication typeA1 Journal article-refereed

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